Friday, June 2, 2017

Finally got Newtonsoft to read an array of objects.

Imports Newtonsoft.Json
Imports Newtonsoft.Json.Linq
Module Module1

   Sub Main()
      Dim sTemp As String
      Dim sr As New IO.StreamReader("e:\sre\temp\rest1.txt")
      sTemp = sr.ReadToEnd
      Dim a As JArray
      Dim a1 As JObject
      a = JsonConvert.DeserializeObject(sTemp)
      For Each a1 In a
         Dim data As List(Of JToken) = a1.Children().ToList
         For Each item As JProperty In data
            Select Case item.Name
               Case "timeZone"
            End Select
   End Sub

Thursday, January 5, 2017

Firmware upgrade for tp-link Archer C9 router

I performed an upgrade of the firmware for the tp-link Archer C9 router. I got the firmware update from their website and then used the web interface, and logged in. Installation of the firmware update seemed to go well, but then I lost connection after it rebooted.

Connect the router to your computer directly via one of the output ethernet connectors. You need to do this because at reboot, it gives a random number in the password for the router and you'll never get in wirelessly.  Once there, you can again connect to the web interface. Change the password to the desired value and you should be able to connect wirelessly again. The directions don't explicitly tell you that the password you use will be lost.

Friday, January 1, 2016

Android App for Chromecast Audio

After a short lookup, I found an app that would Chromecast Audio my mp3s on my phone. It is called LocalCast. It is so far so good.

Wednesday, December 2, 2015

Tuesday, February 24, 2015

This guy hates Joseph Smith

From Facebook

Dear Joseph Smith - I hate you
12/02/2009 - by Adam
"I HATE you.
And you are the only person I hate.
I have given this a lot of thought for many years, and have decided there is no escaping it. Gordon Hinckley told his church membership hundreds of times that he LOVED you, and that he could not wait to meet you and throw his arms around you. My feeling is quite different.
If I ever see you, in any context, I will harm you in any way I can. I will rip off your arms and legs. I will cut your face until there is nothing left but a hole. I push your privates into a paper shredder. I will fill your intestines with nails.
In fact, if the stories you told are true, and all will resurrect, please be advised that I will be happy to spend all eternity punching you in the testicles.
I hate you for justifying your sex addiction as if it was the word of God
I hate you because you lied over and over again about the source of the Book of Mormon, which you wrote in order to control weak minded people.
I hate you because you created a religion that worships you and no one else.
I hate you because you excommunicated anyone who challenged your authority.
I hate you because you pretended to love democracy while establishing tyranny.
I hate you because my mother has contracted many psychological illnesses attempting to cope with the bullshit expectations you said she had to live up to.
I hate you because you want people to give money to your church instead of the poor.
I hate you because you are arrogant, self-righteous, and self-serving, and instead of recognizing these as shortcomings, you claim they are because you are god's special boy.
I hate you because you incorporated disgusting death oaths and symbols into what was supposed to be my wedding.
And most of all, I hate you because your very memory threatens to rob me of my closest friendships, and even my dear wife.
I would not presume to call you anti-Christ, evil, or anything but a man who was massively fucked up. God may love you. Gordon Hinckley and Thomas Monson may have wet dreams about you. But I hate you. I fucking hate everything I have ever learned about you. If I ever see you, I will pay you back for the burdens you have inflicted on those I love.
And no cry of "Lord my God" will save you."

Wednesday, February 4, 2015

Reading the Config File from a DLL

I was having some trouble with the connection string in a DLL. This fixed it for me. Connection string in .NET 3.5 (and above) config file Do not use appsettings in web.config. Instead use the connectionStrings section in web.config. To read the connection string into your code, use the ConfigurationManager class. string connStr = ConfigurationManager.ConnectionStrings["myConnectionString"].ConnectionString;

Monday, August 12, 2013

External views on BoM and BoA


Came across an interesting thread on the exMo subreddit today. A young (17 years old) exMo who posts as 'cagelessbird' (real name Zachary) sent letters to sixty different professors asking them to weigh in on the Book of Mormon or Book of Abraham. (His Book of Mormon letter is here; his Book of Abraham letter is here.) Of the sixty he wrote, twenty-five responded. Of those twenty-five, fourteen permitted cagelessbird to release their names and responses.

I reproduce them here for your consideration (first eleven are on Book of Mormon; last three are Book of Abraham):

Richard Blanton- Professor of Anthropology at Purdue University, PhD in Anthropology from the University of Michigan

Zachary—I'm not familiar with the book of Mormon in detail, but from what you indicated about its contents it is totally made up (there is absolutely no evidence for any of this) not to mention implicitly racist because it seems to imply that Native Americans lacked the ability to build civilization without help from "Lamanites."
With Regards, Rich Blanton

Louise Burkhart- Professor in the Anthropology Department at the University at Albany, PhD in Anthropology from Yale University

Dear Zachary,

It is true that I am a busy woman, but I can answer your question. Since you have already reached your own conclusions and left the Church, I don't feel that I am belittling your religion if I say that all historical and archaeological evidence contradicts the Book of Mormon's stories of the peopling of the Americas and the early history of Native American societies. The Book of Mormon is a work of faith, and naturally has credibility to the faithful, but it has no historical basis, any more than the Book of Genesis is a historically or scientifically accurate version of the origin of the earth and human beings, however much it, or the Book of Mormon, may serve as a moral guide to believers. And I'm sure you can understand why people might be uncomfortable directly contradicting the teachings of what has become a very well established religious movement.

The Americas were peopled by immigrants from Asia probably 15,000 years ago (give or take some thousands; archaeologists still haven't quite figured this out). This is born out by archaeology as well as genetic evidence (DNA, blood types, and other factors). Their descendants settled throughout the entire New World. Complex, urban civilizations developed in Mexico and Central America in isolation from the rest of the world, out of the accumulated knowledge of people who lived there for thousands of years, domesticated corn and other food crops, and learned very well how to live in those environments. Languages of the New World bear no relationship to Hebrew. Ever since Europeans became aware of Native Americans, there have been various attempts to identify them with the so-called "Ten Lost Tribes of Israel" mentioned in the Old Testament. So we might say that Joseph Smith's version was in some degree a variation on this old theme.

Hang on to that inquisitive mind of yours. The archaeology and history of the Americas are fascinating. I hope you will have the opportunity to pursue further studies, in college or on your own.

Best regards,

Louise M. Burkhart
Professor of Anthropology
University at Albany, SUNY

David Carrasco- Professor of the Study of Latin America at Harvard Divinity School, PhD in the History of Religions from the University of Chicago

Dear Zachary

I see you are deeply interested in the history of Mexico as it relates to the Book of Mormon. I respect the Mormon religion and have been to Salt Lake City to see the Mormon monuments and displays.

The Book of Mormon is a book of faith and storytelling and not history. Historically it is inaccurate. If we go on archaeological evidence, there is no basis for what the Book of Mormon teaches, as you summarize it below. There is no record of the arrival of anyone from Jerusalem. Here's another point. People of faith believe what they want to believe about the authenticity of their own religion. Some Catholics believed that St. Tomas, one of Jesus Christ's disciples migrated to Mexico after the crucifixion and preached in Mexico. This is because they found some parallels between Aztec and Maya religion and the Bible. But there is not one single fact, datum, object, word that supports either the Mormon view or the Catholic view.

My book Religions of Mesoamerica is coming out again in paperback in September and I address these claims in the first chapter.

Oswaldo Chinchilla- Assistant Professor of Anthropology at Yale University, PhD in Anthropology from Vanderbilt University

Dear Zachary,

I am not familiar with the Book of Mormon, except in a very superficial way. Therefore, I'm not able to evaluate its contents. However, I always tell my students that the past can be explained in multiple ways, and that there is no point in trying to make compatible diverse explanations that derive from radically different modes of inquiry.

Religious explanations (at least in major modern religions) generally rely on the criterion of authority, basing their interpretations on texts that are held as infallible. The acceptance of such explanations is based on faith and belief. By contrast, scientific explanations are based on logical reasoning and empirical evidence. Explanations are not meant to be accepted, but on the contrary, they are meant to be tested, and there is no established truth that is not amenable to be tested and falsified.

Having said that, I can tell you that I know the work of numerous archaeologists that are members of the Mormon Church, and they have produced important scientific work on ancient Mesoamerica. I cannot tell you whether they consider the results of their work as compatible with the Book of Mormon.

Oswaldo Chinchilla

Geoffrey Conrad- Professor Emeritus of Anthropology at Indiana University, PhD in Anthropology from Harvard University

Dear Mr. [REDACTED],
Thank you for your message. I should begin by saying that while I've written about Mesoamerican archaeology and taught about it for years, it isn't my primary area of specialization. I did most of my own fieldwork in South America and the Caribbean. When I wrote about Mesoamerica, I was collaborating with my colleague Prof. Arthur Demarest (now at Vanderbilt University), whose primary area of expertise is indeed Mesoamerica. When I taught about Mesoamerica, it was always in a course on comparative ancient civilizations. Also, I've never read anything more than snippets of the Book of Mormon and can only discuss the specific claims you've listed below.

After saying all of that, I think I do have enough knowledge to assess the claims you've listed. Insofar as I can tell, they are not supported by any archaeological, linguistic, or genetic evidence. Some specific points of disagreement are:

1) Complex societies ("civilizations," for short) began to emerge in Mesoamerica well before 600 B.C.-- nearly 1,000 years earlier, in fact. All of the archeological evidence indicates that those complex societies were developed by the native peoples of Mesoamerica out of their own longstanding cultural traditions.

2) The native peoples of Mesoamerica are American Indians. All archaeological and genetic evidence indicates that their ancestors came from northeast Asia (Siberia) and entered what is today the Americas sometime before 13,000 years ago.

3) There were probably several thousand native languages spoken in the Americas when Columbus arrived. They belonged to a number of language families, but none of the ones we know anything about belonged to the Semitic language family, which includes Hebrew. None of the known native languages of the Americas show any evidence of being derived from Hebrew.

4) With the single exception of Norse settlement in what is today Newfoundland, there is no evidence of any people from Europe or Southwest Asia in the Americas before Columbus. A small number of Norse colonists from Greenland settled in Newfoundland around A.D. 1000. The colony was short-lived, however, and was abandoned within a century.

I hope this information is useful to you. I do have two colleagues in the Department of Anthropology at Indiana University who are specialists in Mesoamerican archaeology. Both are out of the country this summer, but if they were here, I'm certain they wouldn't say anything different from what I've said.

All best wishes,
Geoff Conrad
Geoffrey W. Conrad
Professor Emeritus of Anthropology
Director Emeritus, Mathers Museum of World Cultures
Indiana University Bloomington

Virginia Garrard-Burnett- Professor of History and Religious Studies at the University of Texas at Austin, PhD in History from Tulane University

From an academic perspective, the Book of Mormon is an interesting historical artifact that is probably the best example ever of the vivid religious imagination of the American people, and especially of Joseph Smith.
All the best,

John Henderson- Professor of Anthropology at Cornell University, PhD in Anthropology from Yale University

I haven't seen convincing evidence that a group of Hebrew speakers arrived in Mesoamerica. I see the Book of Mormon claim as one version of the general issue of transoceanic contact. It's really hard to find good evidence of that kind of contact. It's really unlikely that we would find an initial settlement, so the case usually comes down to looking at patterns of similarity between the origin and destination with evidence drawn from big chunks of time. Most archaeologists are hostile to the idea that people arrived from the Old World, so they don't think about the possibility. I'm not opposed to the idea myself, but I just haven't seen evidence that strikes me as tempting. Language is one area that seems to indicate a negative. Mesoamerican languages clump into a couple of large groupings, but those groupings are very different from one another, and none of them seems related to Hebrew; linguists are sure that there wouldn't be nearly enough time between 600 BC and the Spanish invasion to produce that much variation and obscure a Hebrew ancestry. Of course, I haven't seen a lot of the publications of the LDS church (claims of archaeological confirmation of the Book of Mormon don't show up in standard archaeological publications).
Hope this helps.
John Henderson

Arthur Joyce- Professor of Anthropology at the University of Colorado, Boulder, PhD in Anthropology from Rutgers University

Since I am not very knowledgeable on the claims of the Mormon faith regarding ancient Mesoamerica it is a little difficult to address your overall question. I can say that there is no evidence that I can see for the three assertions that you mention in your note. I don’t see evidence of a major migration of outsiders into Mesoamerica around 600 B.C. Archaeologists are able to trace Native American populations back more than 10,000 years ago. There are no indications of Hebrew roots in Native American languages.

I would also direct your attention to the New World Archaeological Foundation at Brigham Young University. My understanding is that the NWAF has as one of its goals to find evidence of the Book of Mormon in the archaeological record of Mesoamerica. The professional archaeologists employed by the NWAF, however, are fine scholars and well respected in the field of archaeology. I know that some of them are also devout Mormons. Their professional publications in the field of archaeology do not address questions related to the Mormon religion, although my understanding is that some of them have addressed these issues in other venues and that other Mormon writers (non-archaeologists) have used their research to view the Mesoamerican past from the perspective of the Mormon faith.

Art Joyce

William Saturno- Assistant Professor of Archaeology at Boston University’s College of Arts and Sciences, PhD in Anthropology from Harvard University

Dear Zach,

First let me say that I am neither an expert in modern religion nor a religious person. Nonetheless, all modern religions, Judaism, Islam, Christianity, Hinduism, etc. present either scientifically inaccurate or historically unverifiable accounts of the past. Practitioners of these religions are asked to accept these discrepancies as a matter of faith, overlooking errors in fact in order to accept the larger messages of the religious narratives as lessons to guide a moral life.

Any attempt to scientifically verify the events of largely religious documents, whether that be Noah's flood or the travels of Lamanites and Nephites is unlikely to produce a result that will appeal to anyone beyond the faithful. That is to say that people will believe what they are most comfortable believing regardless of what scientists illustrate to be the most likely scenario, take global warming as an example.

In direct reference to the existence of evidence of Hebrew speaking/descendant populations in the Mesoamerica prior to the arrival of Columbus, there is none. That is to say that following more than a century of dedicated research, not a single shred of evidence (potsherd, seed, or residue) of old world origin has ever been found. This is the case even though some Mormon scholars themselves have been searching for that evidence.

If you have any further questions, drop me a line[.]

Michael Smith- Professor of Anthropology at Arizona State University, PhD in Anthropology from the University of Illinois

You are asking about religious interpretations, not scientific interpretations. From a scientific viewpoint, the Book of Mormon has no standing as an accurate or even a relevant source about ancient Mesoamerican history or archaeology. There is no reason to believe that Joseph Smith knew anything about the Mesoamerican past, or to believe that he heard historical truth from God. So I have no opinion about this.

It is often impossible to “test” historical religious accounts against archaeological evidence. The reason is that many people bring strong pre-dispositions to believe the accounts (or to Not belive them), and this colors their interpretations. Consider the archaeology of the Old Testament. Did David exist? Did he rule an empire, or build a big palace and temple? Have we found evidence for these things? There is endless argument about this, and the situation will probably never be settled.

I assume that you know about the New World Archaeological Foundation. It is funded by the LDS church for carrying out archaeology in Mesoamerica. The archaeology they do is rigorous and very good. Their technical reports say nothing about the Book of Mormon. But at some level in the church, people are probably interpreting the archaeological results with reference to the Book of Mormon.

Dr. Michael E. Smith
Professor of Anthropology, School of Human Evolution & Social Change
Affiliated Faculty, School of Geographical Sciences and Urban Planning
Arizona State University

Brian Stross- Professor in the Department of Anthropology at the University of Texas at Austin, PhD in Anthropology from the University of California, Berkeley

To reply directly to your question that I paraphrase as, "apart from Mormon investigators funded by the church, is there much support to the claim that the Book of Mormon is historically accurate, and if not, then why doesn't it carry credible historical weight."

Correct that there is little if any support to the historicity claim for the Book of Mormon, even including scholarly Mormon investigators, who, like Thomas Lee and John Clark have advanced Mesoamerican archaeology (without, however, advancing support of historical propositions in the Book of Mormon. The Book of Mormon therefore doesn't carry credible historical weight except to persons who take it on faith that it is a sacred book with historical import.

The key is that, as with most religions, faith rather than scientific evidence, is what props up beliefs and information given to and propagated by the faithful.

Peter Brand- Professor of Ancient History and Egyptology, PhD in Ancient Egyptian Language and Literature from the University of Toronto

Hi Zachary,

Its good to hear from you and I'm happy to help you out. Just as background I am an Egyptologist and I am also someone who has a close friend and colleague (a historian) who is Mormon but who does not necessarily believe everything the elders tell him. As it happens I suspect that I know, too, who the "notable PhD's" the members of your church are referring to. I am not an expert on LDS but I do understand that there is a long standing connection with Egyptology based on a papyrus the Church holds. There are two Egyptolologists from Brigham Young University who are also members of the church and who often act to promote and defend the Church's teachings in the academic realm, but with little success in changing minds I suspect.

I am not myself a believer and I am highly skeptical of the Book of Mormon and the Book of Abraham. I would also agree with the mainstream Egyptological view that the Joseph Smith Papyrus is simply a Roman era set of Egyptian papyri with various Ancient Egyptian magical texts including sections of a "Book of the Dead" and another known as the "book of breathing". There is no connection between these texts and any aspect of Christianity or Judaism. Outside of Mormon scholars, there is not any recognition of or belief in a "reformed egyptian" script or language. The photos of so called "reformed Egyptian documents that I have seen do not resemble genuine Egyptian scripts of any kind from any period of Egypt's long pharaonic history including both hieroglyphic forms or the more cursive forms known as hieratic and demotic. They look like a modern person's attempt at making cryptogramatic symbols of a modernly invented secret code in that they resemble nonsense "letters" of an alphabet rather than pictorial symbols like hieroglyphs or even the much more varied and differently shaped ligatures of hieratic or demotic Egyptian cursive writing.

There is simply no evidence that the Smith Papyri are anything more than mainstream Egyptologists have identified them as being-- namely typical pharaonic funerary papyri from the last centuries of pagan civilization in Egypt. Despite years of study at BYU, no one has duplicated Smith's "readings" of the papyri as the so-called "book of Abraham" which strongly suggests it is a fictional invention of his imagination. This is not necessarily to say that he didn't believe himself what he told to others. Who knows? People are as capable of deceiving themselves as they are of others.

To my knowledge, there is no archaeological evidence of Nephites or Lamanites, or indeed any other immigrants or settlers in the Americas between the arrival of Asian populations in the prehistoric era until the arrival of European travelers beginning with Columbus. Certainly the Nephites and Lamanites are a figment of Joseph Smith's imagination. There have been other non-religious (specifically non-Mormon) claims of pre-Columbian visitors from the Old World (Europe, the Middle East, Africa) to the Americas via the Atlantic Ocean (As opposed to visits by Asians- specifically Chinese-- to the Americas via the Pacific Ocean). Aside from the original human migrants to the New World 10s of 1000s of years ago probably via a land bridge during the last Ice Age and long before any civilziations arose on earth, it is highly unlikely that there were any early visitations to the Americas. Yet pseudo-scientific claims have been made of Egyptians and other visitors. There is even a popular magazine about it called "Ancient American Magazine" which proposes that there is "archaeological" evidence for Egyptians among others visiting or colonizing North America. I have seen supposed "Egyptian" hieroglyphic inscriptions they claim were found in the US supposedly left by Ancient Egyptians. The ones I have seen resemble modern forgeries of sometimes well-known Egyptian artifacts including ones stored in the British Museum. I bring this up as an independent parallel for the kind of pseudo-scientific belief in a pre-columbian contact between Old World civilizations like Egypt or the Israelites and the Americas. Joseph Smith was not the only one to believe such things although there is no relationship between Mormonism and the beliefs of the editors of "Ancient Americas" magazine. In fact I'm sure they would agree about absolutely nothing.

Ancient Studies often involve a lot of pseudo-scientific, New Age or similar beliefs and claims about the Ancient World which archaeologists and ancient historians reject as modern inventions or misinterpretations. examples would include "pyramid power" some Afrocentric (and New Age) claims about the Egyptians having aircraft, the "Baghdad battery.” But. even if the Babylonians some how "invented" a "battery", they didn't have flashlights or ipods to plug it into!

A good rule of thumb in judging such matters is that "Extraordinary claims should have extraordinary evidence" so, when they haul up the actual body or capture a live plesiosaurus in Loch Ness in Scotland then I will believe in the Lock Ness Monster. I desperately wanted to believe in it when I was 12 but after reading a 300 page book on it from the library with some fuzzy pictures and invented drawings i came to realize that there was no evidence for such a creature.

To non-Mormon's, the story of the gold tablets and the Book of Mormon is often viewed as absurd. Golden tablets and "seeing stones" in a hat sounds like a bad magic trick to be honest and was ruthlessly parodied in an episode of South Park a few years ago.

Sale of antiquities was very common in the 19th century and the first half of the 20th century. Given that -- unless you believe it to be a "miracle" -- how likely is it that someone like Smith who knew nothing about Egyptology per se, would just happen to buy the "right" papyri that happened to have this "lost book" of scripture? It strikes anyone who does not already believe the truth of it, or who wants to believe the truth of it, as being highly unlikely. Of course, people often want to believe the highly improbable and can be easily swayed to believe in fantastic or miraculous claims. This is often how new religions spread. Simply by being old, religions can often become accepted as being "fact" or "true" in part because so many people have believed them for so long. Other Christians who are highly dubious of newer, less traditional sects like LDS, Jehovah's witnesses or Seventh Day Adventists accept tenents of belief that have been around for 2000 years of Christian history that non-Christians are highly dubious, including Muslims and Jews who do not accept the divinity of Christ, the virgin birth or the concept of the Trinity. But after 2000 years, nearly every denomination of Christianity accept these things as dogma just as many Christians and Jews also accept the literal interpretations of fantastic and miraculous events from the Hebrew Bible (Old Testament). One wonders, however, why there are no Old Testament style miracles and plagues today? Who knows, in 700 years from now, LDS beliefs may be as "Mainstream" or "traditional" as older Christian beliefs although there is obviously universal skepticism about them among all non-Mormon persons, both Christian and non-Christian.

I hope this helps. let me know if you have any further questions.

best wishes

Peter Brand

Salima Ikram- Professor of Egyptology at the American University in Cairo, PhD in Egyptology and Museum Studies from the University of Cambridge

See below.
Salima Ikram
Professor of Egyptology
Egyptology Unit Head
American University in Cairo

Here is the most basic summarization of the Book of Mormon:
-In 600 B.C a family from Jerusalem sailed to what is now Central America and began a civilization there. This civilization split up into “Nephites” and “Lamanites” and after centuries of war the Lamanites were the last alive.
-Lamanites are the primary and principle ancestors of Native Americans

No evidence.

-Nephites and Lamanites initially spoke Hebrew when they arrived in Mesoamerica. Over centuries, the linguistics evolved to what some Native Americans speak today.

No evidence.

The Book of Abraham and “Reformed Egyptian”: (This is the area I was hoping you could provide the bulk of information.)
-In 1835 Joseph Smith purchased Egyptian papyri from a traveling mummy exhibit and revealed that they were the writings of the prophet of Abraham. Today, these facsimiles have caused considerable controversy. Many Egyptologists have noted that the facsimiles have no bearing on Joseph Smith’s translations and are instead common Egyptian funerary texts from the first century B.C.

I echo the sentiments Of the Egyptologists.

Peter Der Manuelian, Professor of Egyptology and Director, Harvard Semitic Museum, Harvard University. PhD in Egyptology from the University of Chicago

Dear Zachary,

Thank you for this email. I am one of those who believe, as you wrote, that the "facsimiles have no bearing on Joseph Smith’s translations and are instead common Egyptian funerary texts." I am not personally aware of any professional Egyptologists who feel differently.

With best wishes,

Peter Manuelian

Tuesday, July 30, 2013

Joseph Smith and Polygamy, well, one aspect of it.

From the Autobiography of Benjamin F. Johnson (1818-1905):

And now to your question, "How early did the Prophet Joseph practice polygamy?" I hardly know how wisely to reply, for the truth at times may be better withheld; but as what I am writing is to be published only under strict scrutiny of the wisest, I will say, that the revelation [D&C 132] to the Church at Nauvoo, July 21, 1843, on the Eternity of the Marriage Covenant and the Law of Plural Marriage, was not the first revelation of the law received and practiced by the Prophet. In 1835, at Kirtland, I learned from my sister's husband, Lyman R. Sherman, who was close to the Prophet, and received it from him, "that the ancient order of Plural Marriage was again to be practiced by the Church." This at the time, did not impress my mind deeply, although there then lived with his family a neighbor's daughter, Fannie Alger, a very nice and comely young woman about my own age, toward whom not only myself, but every one, seemed partial for the amiability of her character; and it was whispered even then that Joseph loved her. After this, there was some trouble with Jared Carter, and through Brother Sherman I learned that "as he had built himself a new house, he now wanted another wife", which Joseph would not permit.

And then there was some trouble with Oliver Cowdery, and whisper said it was relating to a girl then living in his family; and I was afterwards told by Warren Parish, that he himself and Oliver Cowdery did know that Joseph had Fannie Alger as a wife, for they were spied upon and found together. And I can now see that as at Nauvoo, so at Kirtland, that the suspicion or knowledge of the Prophet's plural relation was one of the causes of apostasy and disruption at Kirtland although at the time there was little said publicly on the subject.

Soon after the Prophet's flight in winter of 1837 and 1838, the Alger family left for the West and stopping in Indiana for a time Fannie soon married to one of the citizens there, and although she never left the state, she did not turn from the Church nor from her friendship with the Prophet while she lived...

It was Sunday morning, April 3rd or 4th, 1843, that the Prophet was at my home in Ramus, and after breakfast he proposed a stroll together, and taking his arm, our walk led toward a swail, surrounded by trees and tall brush and near the forest line not far from my house. Through the swail ran a small spring brook, across which a tree was fallen and was clean of its bark. On this we sat down and the Prophet proceeded at once to open to me the subject of plural and eternal marriage and he said that years ago in Kirtland the Lord had revealed to him the ancient order of plural marriage, and the necessity for its practice, and did command him then to take another wife, and that among his first thoughts was to come to my mother for some of her daughters. And as he was again required of the Lord to take more wives, he had come now to ask me for my sister Almira.

My words astonished me and almost took my breath. I sat for a time amazed and finally, almost ready to burst with emotion, I looked him straight in the face and said: "Brother Joseph, this is something I did not expect, and I do not understand it. You know whether it is right, I do not. I want to do just as you tell me, and I will try, but if I ever should know that you do this to dishonor and debauch my sister, I will kill you as sure as the Lord lives." And while his eyes did not move from mine, he said with a smile, in a soft tone: "But Benjamin you will never know that, but you will know the principle in time, and will greatly rejoice in what it will bring to you." "But how," I asked, "Can I teach my sister what I myself do not understand, or show her what I do not myself see?" "But you will see and understand it," he said, "And when you open your mouth to talk to your sister, light will come to you and your mouth will be full and your tongue loose, and I will today preach a sermon to you that none but you will understand." Both of these promises were more than fulfilled. The text of his sermon was our use of the "one, five and ten talents," and as God had now commanded plural marriage, and was exaltation and dominion of the saints depended upon the number of their righteous posterity, from him who was then but with one talent, it would be taken and given him that had ten, which item of doctrine seems now to be somewhat differently constructed.

But my thought and wish is to write of things just as they occurred, and I now bear an earnest testimony that his other prediction was more than fulfilled, for when with great hesitation and stammering I called my sister to a private audience, and stood before her shaking with fear, just so soon as I found power to open my mouth, it was filled, for the light of the Lord shone upon my understanding, and the subject that had seemed so dark now appeared of all subjects pertaining to our gospel the most lucid and plain; and so both my sister and myself were converted together, and never again did I need evidence or argument to sustain that high and holy principle. And within a few days of this period my sister accompanied me to Nauvoo, where at our sister Delcena's, we soon met the Prophet with his brother Hyrum and Wm. Clayton, as his private secretary, who always accompanied him. Brother Hyrum at once took me in hand, apparently in fear I was not fully converted, and this was the manner of his talk to me: "Now Benjamin, you must not be afraid of this new doctrine, for it is all right. You know Brother Hyrum don't get carried away by worldly things, and he fought this principle until the Lord showed him it was true. I know that Joseph was commanded to take more wives, and he waited until an angel with a drawn sword stood before him and declared that if he longer delayed fulfilling that command he would slay him." This was the manner of Brother Hyrum's teaching to me, which I then did not need, as I was fully converted.

Meanwhile, the Prophet, with Louisa Beeman and my sister Delcena, had it agreeable arranged with Sister Almera, and after a little instruction she stood by the Prophet's side and was sealed to him as a wife, by Brother Clayton; after which the Prophet asked me to take my sister to occupy number "10" in his Mansion home during her stay in the city. But as I could not long be absent from my home and business, we soon returned to Ramus, where on the 15th of May, some three weeks later, the Prophet again came and at my house occupied the same room and bed with my sister, that the month previous he had occupied with the daughter of the late Bishop Partridge, as his wife. 
And at this time he sealed to me my first wife for eternity, and gave to me my first plural wife, Mary Ann Hale, an orphan girl raised by my mother then living with us, who is still with me, and is probably the only wife still living with the man to whom she was given by the Prophet.

At the marriage of Sister Almera to the Prophet, there was still our youngest sister, for whom he manifest partiality, and would gladly have married, also, but she being young and partially promised to my first wife's brother, although reluctantly, the matter by him was dropped.

On learning from the Prophet that even in Kirtland "the Lord had required him to take plural wives, and that he had then thought to ask for some of my sister,s" the past with its conditions and influences began more fully to unfold to my mind, the causes that must, at least in part, have led to the great apostasy and disruption in Kirtland. Without a doubt in my mind, Fanny Alger was, at Kirtland, the Prophet's first plural wife, in which, by right of his calling, he was justified of the Lord (see D&C 132:59-60); while Oliver Cowdery, J. Carter, W. Parish, or others were not justified of the Lord either in their criticisms upon the doings of the Prophet, or in their becoming a "law unto themselves," through which they lost the light of their calling and were left in darkness.
Fanny A., when asked by her brother and others, even after the Prophet's death, regarding her relations to him, replied: "That is all a matter of our own, and I have nothing to communicate." Her parents died in Utah, true to the church. And to my knowledge, was by President Kimball in the temple at St. George introduced as "Brother of the Prophet Joseph's first plural wife."


Wednesday, May 1, 2013

Friday, March 1, 2013


‎"Elders, never love your wives one hair's breadth further than they adorn the Gospel, never love them so but that you can leave them at a moment's warning without shedding a tear. Should you love a child any more than this? No."
Brigham Young, JoD 3:354

Sunday, February 3, 2013


I found this in a recent thread at

Keewon wrote:What we need to do is ask: What would you expect to find scientifically if the BofM story were just made up? How would that look different from what you actually find?
This is an important question, so let's explore it. If Joseph Smith made up the BoM, we would expect to see the same things that we see in other works of fiction:
- No archeological, linguistic, anthropological, or biological evidence that the civilizations or events in the book existed.
- Evidence that the origins of the book can be traced to the time and place where it was written.
- The book will contain the biases and ideologies of its era and the prejudices of the author.
- Errors in the first edition that are corrected in subsequent editions.
- Possible borrowing from other authors, including borrowing the errors in the original sources.
- The reception will be mixed: some people will like the book and others will be bored by it.
- Etc. You know the rest of these.
Additionally, what would we expect to see if someone did not have an ancient artifact (in this case, the gold plates) but wanted people to believe he had the artifact?
- He would not let anyone see the artifact, and he would threaten anyone who tried to see the artifact with death.
- He would conveniently rid himself of the artifact when it was no longer "needed"
- Those who did see the artifact would not see it directly, but would see it through supernatural means.
If the BoM was what it claims to be we would expect to see:
- A mountain of evidence of all kinds that the BoM civilizations existed, and direct evidence could easily be identified for specific events in the BoM
- A book that clearly came from a different era than the era in which it was written and that is utterly foreign in its biases, prejudices, and ideologies.
- No (or very few) errors in the original edition
- Since historians do not need to borrow from other works, there would be no borrowing
- If God wants everyone to believe in the Book of Mormon, he would have brought about a situation where every reasonable person who read the book would believe in it.
If JS had gold plates, we would expect that:
- He would show the plates to people he trusted, and they would see the plates with their normal eyes
- If God wants us to believe that JS translated the BoM, God could have left the plates in JS's hands so that the plates could be independently examined, which would show that JS's translation was correct, thus converting many people to the BoM.
It looks to me like we see exactly what we would expect to see if JS made up the BoM and we do not see what we would expect to see if JS translated the BoM as he claimed. I'd say the evidence is pretty conclusive.

And there was also this earlier:

We can go around and around on this but my point is that there is no actual evidence of a historical BoM, tons of evidence against and plenty of excuses to try to patch the massive holes.
Here's a brief list of issues off the top of my head:
-King James word-for-word transcriptions from 1769 edition, including errors
-DNA evidence shows no connection between Amerinds and Hebrews
-No non-LDS archaeologist has seen any correlation between artifacts and BoM
-Olmec & Mayan cultures can be traced back to millennia before BoM
-No evidence of Old World culture intrusion into New World
-BoM Includes post-captivity Deutero-Isaiah (written after Lehi’s time)
-Lehi’s dream same as Joseph Smith Sr.’s
-New Testament language and quotes
-Empty Americas in BoM - no mention of aborigines
-Americas intentionally kept secret from all others:: 2 Nephi 1:8
-Specifically names flora and fauna but fails to mention other (Asian-descended) people
-The forged verses from the last chapter of Mark appear word-for-word in Mormon 9
-B.H. Roberts analysis “pious but naive mind” & View of Hebrews parallels
-No old world flora & fauna in Americas
-No American flora and fauna in BoM (corn is exception)
-Steel & other metallurgy - Amerinds in BoM times were stone age people
-Jaredite steel predates the iron age.
-People don’t develop metallurgy and then forget it
-Viking/Nephite comparison
-Roman/Nephite comparison
-Names borrowed from extant sources (e.g. Cumorah & Moroni)
-Many location names very similar to town names of Joseph’s surroundings
-19th Century religion & contemporary concerns throughout BoM
-Similarity of Sharem & Korihor despite intervening centuries
-BoM teaches 19th Century Protestantism, not current LDS doctrine nor ancient doctrine
-BoM teaches trinitarian Godhead, Joseph developed LDS Godhead later
-2nd edition changes to move away from trinitarian Godhead
-Literal fire and brimstone Hell
-The Lemba tribe: an African parallel to BoM migration, but easily proven with DNA
-JS never quoted or taught from the BoM
-Dramatic differences between Harris’ and Anthon’s accounts of transcript
-Languages identified by Anthon (in Harris’ account) didn’t exist in Lehi’s time
-No one has ever been able to make sense of Anthon Transcript “caractors”
-Apologist geography contradicts prophetic statements (hemispheric, location of Cumorah, etc.) right up to Comorah quotes by Hinkley
-Jared Diamond’s Guns, Germs and Steel demonstrates improbablility of BoM claims
-Requires belief that there was no death before The Fall
-Requires belief in a literal global flood
-Jaredite story requires literal belief in Tower of Babel & confusion of languages
-Witness descriptions of gold plates and urim & thummim are wildly inconsistent
-Joseph Sr’s description of gold plates: ½ thick case with masonic symbols
-None of the witness descriptions on the plates would fit in Alvin's writing box
-Native American DNA traces to 40,000 year old human remains found in China
-Number of phrases taken directly from 19th Century sources too numerous to list
-Concepts and phrases lifted directly from John Bunyan
-Stories of Indian writings on gold plates were common in Joseph’s environment
-Stories of a white race destroyed by barbaric Indian race were common in Joseph's environment
-War stories, tactics and phrases lifted from Revolutionary War and War of 1812 accounts
-Australian aboriginal DNA analogy:
-Clearly shows appearance of Asians 4200 years ago
-Dogs and new weapon technology appear in Australia at same time as new DNA
Last edited by Hagoth on Fri Feb 01, 2013 6:20 am, edited 1 time in total.

Monday, December 31, 2012

Newtown Shootings

"The Bath School disaster is the name given to three bombings in Bath Township, Michigan, on May 18, 1927, which killed 38 elementary school children, two teachers, four other adults and the bomber himself; at least 58 people were injured. Most of the victims were children in the second to sixth grades (7–14 years of age) attending the Bath Consolidated School. Their deaths constitute the deadliest mass murder in a school in U.S. history." -

God was "allowed" in schools at the time.

Sunday, December 30, 2012

Lorenzo Snow Timeline

Lorenzo Snow Timeline

Objects in Bold were key events/descriptions left out of the manual by the Correlation Committee. [this article is still in progress]
April 3, 1814 - Born in Mantua, Ohio
1832 - Hears Prophet Joseph Smith preach in Hiriam, Ohio
1835 - Leaves home to study at Oberlin College in Oberlin Ohio. Meets Elder David W. Patten of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles on the way
1836 - Leaves Oberlin COllege and moves to Kirtland, Ohio to study Hebrew.
June 1836 - Baptized and confirmed.
1836 -Ordained an Elder
December 1836 - Receives patriarchal blessing from Joseph Smith Sr.
1837 - Preaches Gospel in Ohio
Oct. 1838 - May 1840 - Serves another mission in Ohio, Missouri, Kentucky and Illinois while working as a school teacher.
May 1840 - Leaves Nauvoo, Illinois to serve mission in England, Under direction of Quorum of the Twelve. Presides over Church in London, England and surrounding area. Publishes a pamphlet titled The only way to be saved
Oct 10, 1842 - Lorenzo Snow delivers two ornamentally bound copies of the BOOK OF MORMON to Queen Victoria and Prince Albert through Sir Henry Wheatly. Queen Victoria probably never read, and may never have handled this presentation copy, but it has since resided in the Royal Library at Windsor Castle. D. Michael Quinn's Extensions of Power
Arrives in Nauvoo, IL with 250 converts
1843-1844 Teaches School in Lima, Illinois
1844 Supervises a campaign in Ohio to Elect Joseph SMith as President of the Untied States.
Oct 1844 - Married to Charlotte Squiers, two children 1845- Appointed by Brigham Young to travel to Ohio and collect donations for the construction of the Nauvoo Temple
1845 Married Mary Adaline Goddard, 3 children
April 21, 1845 Married Sarah Ann Prichard (5 children)
Jan 17, 1846 Married Harriet Amelia Squires (5 children)
Feb 1846-Leaves Nauvoo with family members after receiving endowment
1846-48 Lives with family in Mount Pisgah in Iowa. In spring 1848 leads group to Salt Lake City
1848 Married Eleanor Houtz (8 children)
Feb 12, 1849 Ordained an Apostle in Salt Lake City
1849 Gathers donations for the PEF
1849 to 1852 Serves mission to England where he supervises the publication of the BOM in Italian , Switzerland, and Halta. The Voice of Joseph
Feb 18, 1852 Renames Italian Mountain "Monte Vandalino" to "Mount Brigham". - D. Michael Quinn Origins of Power
1852 - Elected to Utah State Legislature
Oct 9 1853 - Marries Caroline Horton, 3 children
1853 - Called by President Brigham Young to preside over Box Elder County. Names the city "Brigham City"
1857 Marries Mary Elizabeth Houtz (7 children)
Apr 4, 1859 Marries Phoebe Amelia Woodruff (5 children)
March 1864 - May 1864 -With a group led by Ezra T. Benson of the quorum of the Twelve, serves short mission in Hawaiian Islands
June 12, 1871 Marries Sarah Minnie Ephramina Jensen (5 children)
October 1872 -1873 Group lead by George Albert Smith tours Europe and the middle east including the Holy Land at the request of Brigham Young.
1882 The united States Congress passes the Edmuds Act, making plural marriage a felony.
August 1885-October 1885 Serves mission among American Indians in Northwest and Wyoming
March 12, 1886 to Feb 8, 1887 Imprisoned for plural Marriage
March 3, 1887 Edmunds Tucker act, outlawing polygamy and having lands/wealth held by polygamists able to be claimed by the federal Government.
May 21-23, 1888 Dedicatory prayer on Manti temple
April 7, 1889 Sustained as President of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles
Oct. 3 1891 - Apostle Heber J. Grant writes in his journal: "Lorenzo Snow Testified of the great work that the brethren would do and that they would live to see the Saviour come to the earth. Said the Son of God would visit the brethren and converse with them before in he came to the earth in Glory." -Diary of Heber J. Grant
Oct 19-20, 1891 - First Presidency and Lorenzo Snow, Twelve's president, and Apostle Anthon H. Lund testify in court that Manifesto prohibits new plural marriages anywhere in world and prohibits cohabitation with wives married before the Manifesto and that the church will excommunicate violators. Although testimony is pulished in various editions of DESERET NEWS, all polygamous general authorities violate this by continuing to cohabit with their plural wives after 1891. In 1904 President Joseph F. Smith testifies under oath that he is in violation of both the "law of the land" as well as the "law of the church" in continuing to cohabit with plural wives.** - D. Michael Quinn Extensions of Power
Apr 1, 1892 The Twelve Apostles meet and discuss whether or not the Manifesto forbids "unlawful cohabitation" with plural wives taken before the Manifesto. They decide that it shouldn't even though President Wilford Woodruff and Lorenzo Snow had testified under oath that it does. They vote to send a telegram to the U.S. President asking for amnesty for polygamists.
Apr 2, 1892 - "Lorenzo Snow had nothing to say about the bretheren cohabiting with their [plural] wives" after Apostle John Henry said that they should continue to do so. -- Minutes of meetings of the Twelve, Quoted in Extensions of Power
Oct 11, 1892 - "This morning attended very interesting council W[ilford] W[oodruff], G[eorge] Q C[annon], J[oseph] F S[mith], M[oses] T[hatcher], B H Roberts, F[rancis] M Lyman, Pres[iden]t [Lorenzo] Snow concerning the movements of brethren in politics Pres[iden]t G[eorge] Q Cannon narrated experience in his absence with National Central Committeemen &c. At 10 A.M. met with the Presidency in the office, when Bro[ther] Moses Thatcher and brother [B. H.] Roberts came to find out what they should do in politics. They are to continue but very mildly. Apostles [Lorenzo] Snow, [Franklin D.] Richards, [John Henry] Smith and [Heber J.] Grant were also present. It was a very pleasant meeting and the brethren had a good spirit" - Franklin D. Richards, Diary; Francis M. Lyman, Diary
Dec 16, 1892 - Gives discourse on school system in the church to James Talmage on train ride. States "You are called to fulfill a mission of rare and great importance in the Church, and the Lord will assist you" and that James Talmage will never fall from faith - James E. Talmage, Diary
May 19, 1893- September 1898 - First President of the Salt Lake Temple
September 2- Becomes senior apostle and presiding leader of the church upon death of Wilford Woodruff. Receives a divine manifestation in the Salt Lake Temple Hallway, in which the Lord instructs him to move forward with the reorganization of the first presidency. His granddaughter is present and indicates that the reason The Lord meets him in the Hallway is that there is no longer a presiding high priest on the Earth, the saints having rejected polygamy in favor of the world.
Sept 13, 1898 - Sustained by the Quorum of the Twelve as president of the Church
October 9, 1898 - Sustained as President during General Conference
Oct 10, 1898 - Set apart as President
May 1899 - Travesl to St. George, Utah, where he receives a revelation to preach the law of tithing to the Saints. Begins sharing this message in St. George and leads an effort to share it throughout the Church.
Jan 1, 1901 Publishes *greeting to the world" to welcome the 20th Century
Oct 10, 1901 Dies in Salt Lake City at age 87 Lorenzo Snow's dath. First time church president dies before being able to set apart or function with new counselors publicly sustained at general conference, Joseph F. Smith as first and Rudger Clawson as second counselor

I've heard that some of his marriages were to girls as young as 14 and 15 when he was in his 50s and 60s. Also, I don't see that he denied polygamy while in England...while he had 6-7 wives at the time.

Pratt Bennet Joseph Timeline

orson_pratt_sarah_pratt_bennett_and_joseph Timeline

April 26, 1831 - Orson Pratt Ordained an Elder by Joseph Smith Jr.'s own hand |
April 1831 - Mission to Colesville, New York, several other missions to New York, Ohio, Missouri, and the Eastern States|
Feb 2, 1832 Ordained a High Priest by Sidney Rigdon and as a High Priest he continued his missions, preaching in Pennsylvania, New York, New Jersey, Vermont, New Hampshire, Connecticut, and Massachusetts.|
April 26, 1835- Ordained a member of the Quorum of the 12](|
1839 - 1841- Orson Pratt served mission to British Isles. Produced tract "An Interesting Account of Several Remarkable Visions".14 articles of faith included|
  • Orson Pratt served mission to British Isles. Produced tract "An Interesting Account of Several Remarkable Visions".14 articles of faith included
October 27, 1841 - Prescindia's twenty-year-old sister Zina was living in the Joseph Smith home when Elder Henry B. Jacobs married her in March 1841. Joseph: "the Lord had made it known to him that [Zina] was to be his Celestial wife." *Source: "History of Henry Bailey Jacobs." By Ora J. Cannon, page 5-7. also see "Recollections of Zina D. Young" by Mary Brown Firmage) *
11 December 1841 - Prescindia D. Huntington, a faithful Mormon and married woman in Nauvoo, was also a polyandrous wife of Joseph Smith. Prescindia married Norman Buell in 1827 2 sons prior to joining in 1836. --(Mormon Polygamy: A History" by Richard S. Van Wagoner, page 44 and Fawn Brodie "No Man Knows My History" pages 301-302, 437-39)
During the summer of 1841 - shortly after Heber's return from England, he was introduced to the doctrine of plural marriage directly through a startling test... Joseph demanded for himself what to Heber was the unthinkable, his [wife] Vilate. Totally crushed spiritually and emotionally, Heber touched neither food nor water for three days and three nights Heber took Vilate to Joseph. The Prophet wept at this act of faith, devotion, and obedience. Joseph had never intended to take Vilate. It was all a test."- Biography of Heber C. Kimball, "Heber C. Kimball, Mormon Patriarch and Pioneer."
Early 1842 - Sarah M. Kimball, a prominent Nauvoo and Salt Lake City Relief Society leader was also approached by the Prophet in early 1842 despite her solid 1840 marriage to Hiram Kimball --"LDS Biographical Encyclopedia" By Elder Andrew Jensen, 6:232, 1887 (This is Helen Mar Kimball's Mother)
February 1842 - Mary Elizabeth Rollins, already married to non-Mormon Adam Lightner since 11 August 1835, was one of the first women to accept a polyandrous proposal from Joseph Smith. "He was commanded to take me for a wife," --(Lightner, Mary E. Statement. 8 Feb. 1902; Lightner to Emmeline B. Wells, 21 Nov. 1880; Lightner to John R. Young, 25 Jan. 1892. George A. Smith Papers. Special Collections. University of Utah)
April 1842 - Marinda Nancy Johnson, sister of Apostles Luke and Lyman Johnson, married Orson Hyde in 1834. A year before Hyde returned from Jerusalem in 1843, Marinda was sealed to Joseph Smith in April of 1842. -(Andrew Jenson, Church Chronology, August 6, 1844, Nauvoo Sealing Records)
May 11, 1842 - Church leaders announce that John C. Bennett will be disfellowshipped. Orson Pratt refuses to sign the announcement. Pratt's wife Sarah had accused Joseph Smith of trying to seduce her. Joseph had accused John C. Bennett of being the one involved with Sarah Pratt.
Jun 17, 1842 - Heber C. Kimball writes to Parley P. Pratt: "We have organized a Lodge here of Masons since we obtained a Charter. That was in Mar. Since that thare was near two hundred been made masons. Br. Joseph and Sidny [Ridgon] was the first that was Received into the Lodg. All of the twelve apostles have become members Except Orson Pratt. He hangs back. --Letter from Heber C. Kimball to Parley P. Pratt, 17 June 1842 (I can't help but wonder if his wife was selected to be taken because he was not a mason/did not join in on the secret activities of The Order)
Jul 14, 1842 - In a public speech Joseph Smith calls Orson Pratt's wife Sarah "A whore from her mother's breast."-- the Sangamo Journal, (July 29, 1842.)
Sarah had accused Smith of proposing plural marriage to her while her husband Orson was away on a mission
Orson Pratt writes a 'suicide' note: "I am a ruined man! My future prospects are blasted! The testimony upon both sides seems to be equal: The one in direct contradiction to the other . . .
Jul 15, 1842 - Thousands of Nauvoo Mormons search for Orson Pratt after discovering a suicide note
On this same day: The ST. LOUIS BULLETIN publishes Martha Brotherton's account of her invitation to enter into polygamy in Nauvoo with Brigham Young. --St. Louis Bulletin, July 15, 1842, p. 2
Jul 15, 1842 - Joseph Smith Journal- "It was reported early in the morning that Elder Orson Pratt was missing. I caused the Temple hands and the principle men of the city to make a search for him. After which a meeting was called at the Grove, and I gave the public a general outline of John C. Bennett's conduct." --LDS History of the Church 5: 60–61
Jul 17, 1842 - Brigham Young writes to Parley P. Pratt concerning his brother Orson Pratt--Apostle Jebediah M. Grant, Sunday Tabernacle Discourse, March 23, 1856, Journal History quoting the letter.
Jul 17, 1842 - THE WASP EXTRA, a Nauvoo newspaper, accuses John C. Bennett of "adultery, fornication, embryo infanticide and buggery, . . ."
Jul 21, 1842 - Wilford Woodruff writes: "There was a Counsel of the Twelve held for four days with Elder Orson Pratt to labour with him to get him to recall his sayings against Joseph & The Twelve" -- this is cited even on the mormon wiki page, but the journal entry published online only discusses Bennett reprinted in CONFLICT IN THE QUORUM: ORSON PRATT, BRIGHAM YOUNG, JOSEPH SMITH
Jul 29, 1842 - Scandal printed in SANGAMO JOURNAL: "We do not know what course will be pursued by Mr. [Orson] Pratt. If he sinks under the denunciations and schemes of Joe Smith- if he fails to defend the reputation of himself and of the woman he has vowed to protect before high heaven..." full text transcribed:
August 1, 1842 - Times and Seasons 3 : 868–878 publishes affidavits that Sarah Pratt is lying and had an affair with Bennett
August 20, 1842 - Orson Pratt Excommunicated for insubordination, Sarah Pratt for Adultary this removed Pratt (And Hyde, both Orsons) from their seniority status.--Bergera, Gary James (1992). "Seniority in the Twelve: The 1875 Realignment of Orson Pratt". Journal of Mormon History 18 (1): 19–58.
October 1, 1842 - Times and Seasons 3 :939–940 Publishes affidavits that Sarah Pratt lied and had an affair with Bennett.
Orson soon returned to the church and denounced Bennett. "Bro. Orson Pratt is in the church and always has been & has the confidence of Joseph Smith and all good men who know him....As to Bennett or his book [The History of the Saints, 1842] I consider it a little stooping to mention it."
January 20, 1843 - Pratt reinstated to the Quorum of the 12
July, 27 1843 - "I according to Pres. Joseph Smith & council & others, I agreed to stand by Sarah Ann Whitney [sealed to Smith 27 July 1843] as though I was supposed to be her husband and a pretended marriage for the purpose of shielding them from the enemy and for the purpose of bringing out the purposes of God." (Elder Joseph Kingsbury, "History of Joseph Kingsbury Written by His Own Hand," page 5, Utah State Historical Society)
13 May 1844 - Entry in William Law's diary that Joseph proposed to his wife Jane (entry was crossed out later, no reason given) William Law, Cited in Lyndon Cook, William Law, Orem, Utah: Grandin Book Co., 1994, 53.
1886 - Sarah Pratt claimed in an interview that, while in Nauvoo, Illinois, Joseph Smith, Jr. was attracted to her and intended to make her "one of his spiritual wives" while Orson was in England on missionary service
19 February 1854 - Apostle Jedediah M. Grant, second counselor to Brigham Young and father of President Heber J. Grant, sermon addressing Joseph asking men for their wives posted here
Nov 1, 1890 - Prophet Wilford Woodruff, John Mills Whitaker Journal: "The Prophet went to the home of President Taylor, and said to him, 'Brother John, I WANT LEONORA.', "If GOD wants Leonora He can have her... I don't want your wife, I just wanted to know just where you stood."

Temple Timeline

Temple Timeline

Sections in this post:
Ancient temples - A
Masonic Timeline- M
Garment related- G
Endowment Related- E
Sealings and polygamy related- S
Miscellaneous dates- D
Notes with no date- N
These will be mixed together with the indicators included:
Circa 1250 BC (A) - Assuming biblical account is correct: Moses receives instruction for building tabernacle
Circa 1000 BC (M) - Hiraim Abif is born according to masonic lore
968 BC (A) - Soloman's Temple Constructed
715 BC (M/A) - Numa Pompilius (the second King of Rome) organizes Roman workers into various Collegia. He attaches one to each legion of the Army so that Roman arms and arts go hand in hand into the outlying parts of the Empire. The stone workers, or masons, are the most numerous because of their use in defense works, and so become the most powerful. Each Collegia has at least three members. They use their tools as symbols and look after the widows and orphans of members. Masons tie to this parallelism for early roots originally
715-657 BC (A) - Hezekiah reforms Temple, Many scholars believe Old Testiment prior to this is re-organized by Committee to fit his needs, whatever the Templar might have recovered would have been Hezekiah's altered temple rites
586 BC (A) - Nebuchadnezzar destroys Soloman's Temple)
515 BC (A) -Zerubbabel's reconstruction of Temple complete
175-164 BC (A) - Antiochus Epiphanes profanes the Temple, dedicated to Zues
168-165 BC (A) - Maccabean Revolt and Temple rededication. Feast of Dedication (hanukkah) created
19 BC (A) - Zerubbabel's Temple dismantled and replaced by Harod's Temple
(N) - Masons claim Jesus was an Essenes, group similar to Sadducee and Pharisees. Worked with Stone/Carpentry; could not marry
70 - Herod's Temple destroyed by Romans (This is the one the Templars found the remains of, rebuilt twice; and revised several times including once to Zues
926 (M) - Prince Edwin, calls and presides over a meeting of Masons at York
1104 (T/M) - Count Hugh of Champagne visits Jerusalem
1114 (T/M) - Count Hugh of Champagne returns to Jeruslalem and is accompanied by his vassal Hughes de Payen who remains in Jerusalem with eight other knights
1119 (T/M) - On Christmas day, Hugh Of Payen and eight knights take a vow before the Patriarch in the Church of the Holy Sepulchre of poverty and chastity and obedience and become the Poor Fellow-Soldiers of Jesus Christ. The Knights Templar are conceived.
1138 (T/M) - Pope Innocent II grants Templar new power, they are subject only to the pope
1149 - A group of organized operative stonemasons in Germany are in existence. They are called the Steinmetzen, and some claim they are claimed to be the precursors of Freemasonry today
1183 (D) - Ricahrd III goes on Crucade, Leaving Prince John in charge at home. (Robin Hood stories pre-date this, but who cares, right?)
Friday 13th, 1307 (M/T) - Templars all across France are arrested in the early hours in one decisive swoop (original order 66)
24th Oct, 1307 (M/T) - Jacques DeMolay confesses to accusations under Torture as part of an Inquisition
March 19th, 1314 (M/T)- Jacques DeMolay and Geoffrey de Charney are burned alive at the stake on a small island in the River Seine called Ile des Javiaux.
1357 (M/T)-First recorded exhibition of the Shroud of Turin (now believed to be that of Jacques de Maloy, but originally attributed to Christ, Christ first gains a beard in paintings and stained glass windows after this date)
1376 (M) - Freemason and Mason Company of London is in existence as a craft guild. First use of the word "Freemason" recorded on August 9th, stricken through and replaced with "mason" (however these are probably not connected to actual Freemasonry according to historians)
1390 (M) - The Regius Poem, or Manuscript, (also known as the Halliwell Manuscript) is written or copied from older manuscripts. It is written in Middle English, and is said to be based on the Instructions for a Parish Priest or Urbanitas, a book of instruction on deportment and hygiene. This is the origination for the "Masonic Ceremony" as known. Of note, no mention of Hiriam Abiff, but instead focuses on Euclid and Egypt
1425 (M) - The Cooke Manuscript is written. It is the second oldest of the extant ancient manuscripts of Freemasonry
1463 (M) - The Worshipful Company of Masons of the City of London erects its first Meeting Hall.
1471 (M) - First mention of a Master Mason: Robert Stowell is appointed Master of Masons at Westminster Abbey
1583 (M) - The Grand Lodge No 1 Manuscript is written. Now in the possession of the United Grand Lodge of England, this is the third oldest of the existing Manuscripts relating to Freemasonry and could be said to be the one the modern rite is based off of
1598 - Scottish Right, by William Schaw, master of the Works, created. This is the version Joseph Smith would have learned
1604 - Fellow Craft Degree of Freemasonry introduced by Francis Bacon
November 5th 1605 (D) - Guy Fawkes
1610 (D) -Galileo makes public his view of the Solar System
1650 (M) - The Harleian Manuscript is written, including the Mason will have to answer to God at judgement day should he not keep these signs and words secret, this is before penalties are added
1656 (M) - John Aubrey begins writing A Natural History of Wiltshire in which he states that "the Fraternity of Free-Masons are known to one another by certain signs and watch words, and other significant words", and also described them as "adopted masons" and "accepted masons". His History is not published until 1847.
1696 (M) - First recorded mention of the five points of fellowship in the Edinburgh Register. The concept that this is ancient, when it didn't exist in masonry (no indication prior) until 1696, is laughable
1717 (M) - Grand Lodge formed A Short History of the Most Worshipful Grand Lodge of Ancient Free and Accepted Masons of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, by Louis C. King (privately published, 1983).
1725 (M) - First mention of a "Master Mason in conjunction with a degree". Third Degree masons clearly mentioned in 1726. Source: "Philo-Musicæ et Architecture Societas Apollini [A Review]," Ars Quatuor Coronatorm 16 (1903), pp. 112-28. It makes reference to a Charles Cotton and a Papillon Ball who were made Master Masons on May 12, 1725. Anderson's Constitutions makes reference to "Master Masons" existing at the formation of the Premiere Grand Lodge in 1717. Sloane Ms 3329 (ca. 1700) and Trinity College Dublin Ms (1711) both make reference to elements of the Master's degree. From this, we can conclude that the Master's degree existed in some form before 1725.
July 30, 1733 (M) - First Masonic Lodge in America (Boston) formed
1733 (M) - Benjamin Franklin reprinted Anderson's Book of Constitutions. This was the first Masonic book published in America.
July 30th, 1733 (M) -First Masonic Temple in America erected in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
April 28th, 1738 (M) - In Eminenti written by Pope Clement XII This is the first official edict of the Roman Catholic Church against the Craft
1739 (M) - A committee meets in London to discuss proposed changes for Freemasonry. This committee eventually developed into the Ancient Grand Lodge
March 1751 (M) - Joseph Torrubia, A roman Catholic priest who spies on the masons, provides a list of 97 lodges and their members
May 18, 1751 (M) - Pope Benedict XIV issues Providas against the craft, Inquisition arrests and punishes members
July 2nd, 1751 (M) - King Ferdinand VI suppresses the order in Spain
July 17th, 1751 (M) - Schism "Grand Lodge of England" is formed known as the "moderns"
1752 (M) - George Washington is made a freemason in Fredericksburg
1754 (M)- First use of the term "Sublime Degree of a Master Mason"
1773 (M) - "Strict Union" between Grand Lodge of Scotland and the Grand Lodge of England, American rite has already diverged significantly from the European version
1775 (M) - William Hutchinson publishes Spirit of Freemasonry - the first book on Masonic philosophy expressing the view that the Craft is a Christian association
7/4/1776 (D/M) - American Independence. Declaration was signed by 13 freemasons
10/13/1792 (M) - Cornerstone of the White House laid on the anniversary of the death of Jaques de Molay. Six freemasons in attendence
1813 - Moderns and Antients become reconciled and form "The United Grand Lodge of Antient, Free and Accepted Masons of England
May 7, 1818 - Joseph Smith Sr. becomes a freemason (ontario Lodge No. 23 of Canandaigua, New York) source: Rough Stone Rolling
1822 (D) - Rosetta Stone translated in Paris allowing Egyptian to be understood
1824 (M) - King Ferdinand VII of Spain decrees on 1st August the death of all Freemasons without trial.
Sept 22, 1826 (M) - Lucinda Morgan, William Morgan's wife, says he had a scribe. Oliver Cowdery likely candidate Source: Samuel D. Greene's 1870 book, The Broken Seal..., pp. 89-90
1827 - William Morgan's anti-Masonry Book published
1828 (M) - Formal organization if the Anti-Masonic political party in February at New York
1830 (D) - Book of Mormon Published, "Church of Christ" established
August 3, 1831 - Independence temple lot dedicated
May 18th, 1834 (S) - Joseph Smith, writes "...your husband until death" in letter to Emma (no concept of eternal marriage)
July 1835 - Purchase of Book of Abraham Papyri
27 March 1836 - Kirtland Temple Open - Joseph Smith dedicating
1835-1836 - Kirtland temple marriages open to non-members Source : The Personal Writings of Joseph Smith, 1835-1836
26 April 1838 - Far West Temple announced
October 1838 - Adam-ondi-Ahman Temple
1838 - Lucinda Pendleton Morgan, wife of William Morgan; writer of the expose on free masonry marries Joseph Smith (evidence is scarce, two sources, Sarah Pratt, and Jenson claimed it as well) source: No Man Knows my History, Fawn Brodie
4 November 1838 (S) -"If I do not meet you again in this life may God grant that we may somehow meet in heaven." Letter to Emma from Carthage Jail
1839 - James Halliwell discovers the Regius Manuscript in the British Museum indicating that Masonry was of an ancient order
1840 - Biography of Lucy Mack Smith written, mentioning "Faculty of Abrac" a Masonic Mystery source: Refiner's Fire, Cambridge University Press, 1994, pp. 157-158).
19 January 1841 - Baptism for the Dead introduced, not conducted in temple originally
October 15,1841 - The Grand Master of Illinois issued a dispensation to a lodge in Nauvoo, Illinois
1841 -William Morgan is baptized for the dead, by request of his wife
March 15,1842 - Navuoo Lodge granted Joseph installed as grand chaplain source: Evidences and Reconciliations, 1 volume, pp. 357-358).
March 15,1842 - "In the evening I received the first degree in Free Masonry in the Nauvoo Lodge, assembled in my general business office." The record for the next day reads, "I was with the Masonic Lodge and rose to the sublime degree" (page 552). History of the Church Volume 4, page 552
March 17, 1842 Relief Society Organized in the Masonic Lodge. included in the actual vocabulary of Joseph Smith's counsel and instructions to the sisters were such words as: ancient orders, examinations, degrees, candidates, secrets, lodges, rules, signs, tokens, order of the priesthood, and keys; all indicating that the Society's orientation possessed Masonic overtones.
May 4, 1842 (E) - Endowment administered for first time on upper floor of the Nauvoo Store (Washing, anointing, clothing in garment, instruction in signs, tokens, keywords of holy priesthood
A short time later, Joseph called seven of his leading men together and instructed
them "in the principles and order of the Priesthood, attending to washings, anointings, endowments and the communication of keys " which Joseph said instituted the ancient order of things for the first time in these last days." History of the Church, 5:1–2; spelling
1842 (E) - Ebinezer Robinson recalls seeing John Taylor, wearing a turban and having a drawn sword in the upper room of red brick store
August 1842 (M) - Nauvoo Masonic Lodge's charter suspended
9 February 1843 - Parley P. Pratt returns home from a mission, angry he has missed the endowment, D&C 129 given History of the Church, 5:267
1843 Eternal Marriage (Sealings) first performed
October 1843 (M) - Charters of the Nauvoo lodges arrested for irregularities in October
20 January 1844 - Heber C. Kimball and wife Vilate recorded by Brigham Young to receive second anointing Manuscript History of Brigham Young, p. 158, Wilford Woodruff diary for same date
June 27, 1844 Joseph Smith Jr. Dies, his last cry is "Will no man help the widow's son" with his hands raised in a masonic sign. Star of Jupiter around his neck. The "mob" is the Warsaw militia containing freemasons
1844-1845 Local Masonic lodges reject "Joseph's Lodge" primarily for teaching masonry to women
1845 - Brigham Young gives the endowment as a ritual drama, with a creation room, garden room, Telestial, terrestial room and celestial room. This is the first time it is recorded as being a drama.
Jan 22, 1846 - Lucinda Morgan (Harris) is sealed by her own request, to Joseph Smith Jr. for eternity. Her Husband George W. Harris stood as Proxy. The next day she is sealed to her husband for time.
1-3 May 1846 Nauvoo Temple Dedicated by Orson Hyde
Jan 11th 1846 - Heber and Vilate Kimball receive Second Annointing
Jan 11th 1846 - Brigham Young receives Second anointing from Heber C. Kimball
April 9,1850 - Lucinda Morgan (Harris) is living separately from her husband George.
1852 - Polygamy formally announced
1853 - Orson Pratt pubishes "27 Rules of Celestial Marriage" clearly outlining that a celestial marriage must be polygamous
5 May 1855 - Endowment House dedicated by Heber C. Kimball
1858 (D) - Rosetta stone translated into english
1860 - Lucinda Morgan dies, a member of the Catholic Sisters of Charity
1872 (M) - the Grand Lodge of Utah was formed as an openly anti-Mormon organization. Masons are not permitted to have leadership positions in church.
6-8 April 1877 St. George Utah dedicated by Daniel H. Wells
1877 (E) - First recorded endowments for the dead are performed. Brigham Young produces the first written text of the endowment for use in the St. George Temple)
1877 - First recorded introduction at the veil available here
1881 - William Bryant, an old neighbor of Oliver Cowdery in western NY, recalled, "He (Cowdery), was strong against the Masons; he helped to write Morgan's [Anti-mason] book, [Lyman?] Cowdery was a strong Mason, so they all said; that is all the religion he had. interview published in the Saints' Herald of June 1, 1881
1882 (S) - Edmunds Act outlaws polygamy
17-19 May 1884 - Logan Utah Temple dedicated by John Taylor
21-23 May 1888 - Manti Temple dedicated by Lorenzo Snow
8 December 1890 (G) -"Sister Zina D. H. Young submitted a knitted garment something like our garments which is made in the East and asked if such may be marked & have a collar put on it and used as out Temple garment. It was decided by the First Presidency that such garments should not be used in lieu of the pattern given." - L. John Nuttall Journal, Vol 3, p. 227; 8 December 1890
1890 (S) - Term "Celestial Marriage" now referss to more than Polygamy. Prior to this, one could be sealed in the temple and not have a celestial marriage
April, 1890 (G) -The Nauvoo Garment was decribed by Ebenezer Robinson in "The Return Vol II", his periodical after being editor for The Times and Seasons.
6-24 April 1893 -Salt Lake Temple dedicated by Wilford Woodruff
1893 - Church leaders order minor alterations to the language and procedures of the endowment, trying to ensure greater consistency in how the endowment is administered in different temples Source: David John Buerger, The Mysteries of Godliness: A History of Mormon Temple Worship (San Francisco: Smith Research Associates, 1994).
1898 (G) - "Each individual should be provided with the endowment clothing they need. The garments must be clean and white, and of the approved pattern; they must not be altered or mutilated, and are to be worn as intended, down to the wrist and ankles, and around the neck. These requirements are imperative; admission to the Temple will be refused to those who do not comply therewith." - President Joseph F. Smith, "Instructions Concerning Temple Ordinance Work," President of the Salt Lake Temple 1898-1911
1904-1906 The endowment is scrutinized during congressional hearings in the Reed Smoot trials. Focus on the "Oath of Vengence". David John Buerger, The Mysteries of Godliness: A History of Mormon Temple Worship (San Francisco: Smith Research Associates, 1994).
Aug, 09 1906 (G) "The Lord has given unto us garments of the holy priesthood, and you know what that means. And yet there are those of us who mutilate them, in order that we may follow the foolish, vain and indecent practices of the world." "In order that such people may imitate the fashions, they will not hesitate to mutilate that which should be held by them the most sacred of all things in the world, next to their own virtue, next to their own purity of life. They should hold these things that God has given unto them sacred, unchanged and unaltered from the very pattern in which God gave them. Let us have the moral courage to stand against the opinions of fashion, and especially where fashion compels us to break a covenant and so commit a grievous sin." President Joseph F. Smith, "Fashion and the Violation of Covenants and Duty," Improvement Era 9, August 1906, 812-815.
1906 (G) - "The following is to be regarded as an established and imperative rule. The garments worn by those who receive endowments must be white and of the approved pattern; they must not be altered or mutilated, and are to be worn as intended, down to the wrist and ankles and around the neck. Admission to the temple will be refused to those who do not comply to these requirements." "The Saints should know that the pattern of endowment garments was revealed from Heaven and that the blessings promised in connection with wearing them will not be realized if any unauthorized change is made in their form or in the manner of wearing them." Messages of the First Presidency 5:110; President Joseph F. Smith; 28 June 1906.
1916 (G) -"The garments worn by those who receive endowments must be white and of the approved pattern. They must not be altered and mutilated and are to be worn as intended, down to the wrist and ankle, and around the neck. Admission to the temple will be refused those who do not comply with these requirements. The Saints should know that the pattern of endowment garments was revealed from heaven, and the blessings promised in connection with wearing them will not be realized if any unauthorized change is made in their form or in the manner of wearing them." President of the Church, Joseph F. Smith, Improvement Era 9:812, 28 June 1916
1919-1927 A committee appointed by Heber J. Grant produces a revised endowment to be used in all temples. Changes include:
Eliminating the oath of vengeance.
Omitting graphic descriptions from the penalties.
Reducing the number of times the robes of the priesthood are changed from one shoulder to the other.
Discontinuing temple choirs (who had formerly performed the hymn chosen by Lucifer's preacher), in favor of congregational singing.
1 Oct, 1922 (G) - George B. Richards's questions raised after a conversation with Sister Maria Dougall in October 1922. At that time he learned that Joseph Smith had not designed the garments and temple clothing.
1923 (G) - Committee formed to research origins of Garment under First Presidency direction
April 5,1923 (G) - In fact, a group of sisters led by Emma Smith and including Bathsheba Smith had fashioned both the garments and the temple clothing, and presented them to Joseph Smith for his approval. The collar on the garments had been put on because the sisters could think of no other way to finish it at the top, and they added ties because they had no buttons. The original cap in the temple clothing had looked something like a crown, but Joseph Smith had them redesign it to look more like a baker's cap.
17-May-23 (G) - The Church approves a shorter garment for optional use outside the temple (extending to the elbows and knees rather than the wrists and ankles). However, the longer garment remains mandatory for use in the temple
"Letter from Heber J. Grant (First Presidency letter) After careful and prayerful consideration it was unanimously decided that the following modifications may be permitted, and a garment of the following style be worn by those Church members who wish to adopt it, namely: (1) Sleeve to elbow. (2) Leg just below knee. (3) Buttons instead of strings. (4) Collar eliminated. (5) Crotch closed.
It may be observed that no fixed pattern of Temple garment has ever been given, and that the present style of garment differs very materially from that in use in the early history of the Church, at which time a garment without collar and with buttons was frequently used."
When Willard Richards was solicited [by Smith] to do the same, he declined, and it seems little less than marvelous that he was preserved without so much as a bullet piercing his garments."" Heber J. Grant journal sheets, 7 June 1907, LDS Archives.
1936 (E) - A codified explanation of the symbolism of the marks on the veil is added to the endowment. source: David John Buerger, The Mysteries of Godliness: A History of Mormon Temple Worship (San Francisco: Smith Research Associates, 1994).
1945 (E) - The endowment is administered in Spanish in the Mesa, Arizona temple, the first time the ceremony is administered in a language other than English. David John Buerger, The Mysteries of Godliness: A History of Mormon Temple Worship (San Francisco: Smith Research Associates, 1994).
1950 (E) -The first filmed versions of the endowment are made, for use in the Swiss and New Zealand temples (with different casts for different languages). David John Buerger, The Mysteries of Godliness: A History of Mormon Temple Worship (San Francisco: Smith Research Associates, 1994).
11–15 September 1955 Bern Switzerland Temple Dedicated by David O McKay
1960s Film becomes the standard medium for presenting the endowment. Filmed endowments take on a theatrical quality (with costumes, scenery, music, etc.) and are dubbed from English into other As the filmed endowment makes congregational singing awkward, the preacher's hymn is discontinued.languages. David John Buerger, The Mysteries of Godliness: A History of Mormon Temple Worship (San Francisco: Smith Research Associates, 1994).
"Letter: To PRESIDENTS of TEMPLES Dear Brethren: This will advise you that approval has been granted for limited modification in the design of the garment used in the temple to allow for better fit and greater wearing comfort.
The approved modified design for women has a button front rather than string ties, a brassiere top patterned after the brassiere top of garments used for day-time wear, a helanca stretch insert in the back at the waist, and widened overlapping back panels with a helanca stretch piece at the top of each panel and a button to assure panels remaining closed. All other features of the garment, including the collar, long legs, and long sleeves, remain the same as heretofore.
The approved modified design of the garment for men has a button front, closed crotch, helanca stretch insert piece in the back at the waist, widened overlapping back panels with a helanca stretch piece at the top of each panel and a button to assure panels remaining closed. All other features of the men's garment also, including the collar, long legs and long sleeves, remain the same as heretofore.
OFFICE OF THE FIRST PRESIDENCY Salt Lake City 11, Utah June 10, 1965"
1966 - Visitor Center built in Salt Lake City
1967 -Book of Abraham papyri found at Metropolitan Museum of Art
1970s (E) - Revisions are made to the portion of the ceremony involving Lucifer's preacher: Lucifer no longer specifies the amount of the preacher's salary, and a reference to Satan's having black skin is omitted. David John Buerger, The Mysteries of Godliness: A History of Mormon Temple Worship (San Francisco: Smith Research Associates, 1994).
1975 (G) - The long, pre-1923 garment becomes optional in the temple and is eventually discontinued. David John Buerger, The Mysteries of Godliness: A History of Mormon Temple Worship (San Francisco: Smith Research Associates, 1994).
1978 - The lifting of the priesthood ban on blacks by President Spencer W. Kimball makes the endowment available to all Latter-day Saints, regardless of race. David John Buerger, The Mysteries of Godliness: A History of Mormon Temple Worship (San Francisco: Smith Research Associates, 1994).
December 15, 1979 (G) - Two piece garment introduced The most dramatic recent change was the two-piece garment in 1979. In a letter to Church leaders dated December 15, 1979, the First Presidency announced the introduction in February 1979 of two-piece temple garments. The new style garments were offered in addition to and priced about the same as the regular one-piece variety. No explanation for or description of the new garments was given.
1984 The Grand Lodge of Utah and church leadership under President Spencer W. Kimball mutually agreed to drop their antagonistic positions against each another
1986 (M) - It appears that some lodges still use penalties and do not by this point. For a list of lodges using penalties today:
1990 Following surveys of Church members' feelings about the endowment, major revisions are made: - Dialogue, Vol. 20, No. 4, p.56
All penalties, the five points of fellowship, and syllables purported to having meaning in the Adamic language are omitted.
The part of the preacher is eliminated, as well as a reference to Lucifer's "popes and priests"
Women no longer covenant to obey the law of their husbands.
Language which faults Eve for initiating the Fall is dropped.
Many references to Adam are replaced with references to Adam and Eve.
The lecture at the veil is discontinued.
Orders from Elohim are repeated fewer times for brevity's sake.
Prior to 1993 (M/E) - Five Points of Fellowship Removed from the Endowment
1999 (G) - Military Garment issued (Green camo)
2005 - Procedures for the initiatory are revised such that initiates clothes themselves in the garment before entering the washing room, thus eliminating the final vestiges of ritual nudity (which had been curtailed by introduction of the shield, probably during the 1920s). Water and oil are applied to the head only, not to multiple parts of the body.
2005 (G) - Silkscreend garments introduced, including silkscreening markings on inside of other clothing for military and police
2007 - Desert tan cycling style of lycra undershort worn during unit physical training exercises. Now avaialble in "White" for female.
2008 Possibly out of consideration for the elderly and disabled, initiates are no longer instructed to stand while making covenants. David John Buerger, The Mysteries of Godliness: A History of Mormon Temple Worship (San Francisco: Smith Research Associates, 1994).